Casualties of the Iraq War
لقد جاءت تقديرات الخسائر الناجمة عن الصراع في العراق (بدءاً من الغزو الأمريكي للعراق عام 2003 ، وما تلا ذلك من احتلال وتمرد) بعدة أشكال ، وتختلف تلك التقديرات الخاصة بأنواع مختلفة من خسائر الحرب في العراق اختلافًا كبيرًا.
تتراوح تقديرات الخسائر بين 151000 حالة وفاة عنيفة اعتبارًا من يونيو 2006 (وفقًا لمسح صحة الأسرة في العراق) إلى 461000 حالة وفاة في يونيو 2011 (حسب PLOS Medicine 2013) ، أكثر من 60٪ من هذه الحالات كانت عنيفة.  تشير التقديرات الأخرى ، المتنازع عليها في الأوساط العلمية ، مثل دراسة Lancet لعام 2006 ومسح Business Opinion Research (ORB) لعام 2007 ، إلى أن الأرقام تصل إلى 655،000 حالة وفاة في يونيو 2006 (أكثر من 90٪ منها عنيفة) و 1.2 مليون قتيل عنيف في أغسطس 2007 على التوالي. تم حساب تعداد الجثث – الذي يقلل من معدل الوفيات – على الأقل 110600 وفاة عنيفة اعتبارا من أبريل 2009 (أسوشيتد برس). يوثق مشروع إحصاء الجثث في العراق 183،249 – 205،785 وفاة مدنية عنيفة حتى فبراير 2019.
Estimates of the casualties from the conflict in Iraq (beginning with the, and the ensuing ) have come in several forms, and those estimates of different types of casualties vary greatly.
Casualty estimates range from 151,000 violent deaths as of June 2006 (per the) to 461,000 total deaths as of June 2011 (per 2013), over 60% of the latter being violent. Other estimates, which are disputed in the scientific community, such as the and the put the numbers as high as 655,000 total deaths as of June 2006 (over 90% of them violent) and 1.2 million violent deaths as of August 2007 respectively. Body counts — which underestimate mortality — counted at least 110,600 violent deaths as of April 2009 ( ). The documents 183,249 – 205,785 violent civilian deaths through to February 2019.
The tables below summarize reports on Iraqi casualty figures.
|Source||Estimated violent deaths||Time period|
|151,000 violent deaths||March 2003 to June 2006|
|601,027 violent deaths out of 654,965 excess deaths||March 2003 to June 2006|
|Survey||460,000 deaths in Iraq as direct or indirect result of the war including more than 60% of deaths directly attributable to violence.||March 2003 to June 2011|
|Source||Documented deaths from violence||Time period|
|110,600 violent deaths.||March 2003 to April 2009|
|183,249 – 205,785 civilian deaths from violence.||March 2003 to Feb 2019|
|Classified||109,032 deaths including 66,081 civilian deaths.||January 2004 to December 2009|
Overview: Iraqi death estimates by source Summary of casualties of the. Possible estimates on the number of people killed in the invasion and occupation of Iraq vary widely, and are highly disputed. Estimates of casualties below include both the and the following .
|Iraq war logs||in October 2010, record Iraqi and Coalition military deaths between January 2004 and December 2009. The documents record 109,032 deaths broken down into “Civilian” (66,081 deaths), “Host Nation” (15,196 deaths),”Enemy” (23,984 deaths), and “Friendly” (3,771 deaths).|
|Iraqi Health Ministry||Therecorded 87,215 Iraqi violent deaths between January 1, 2005, and February 28, 2009. The data was in the form of a list of yearly totals for death certificates issued for violent deaths by hospitals and morgues. The official who provided the data told the Associated Press said the ministry does not have figures for the first two years of the war, and estimated the actual number of deaths at 10 to 20 percent higher because of thousands who are still missing and civilians who were buried in the chaos of war without official records.|
|The Associated Press||Associated Press stated that more than 110,600 Iraqis had been killed since the start of the war to April 2009. This number is per the Health Ministry tally of 87,215 covering January 1, 2005, to February 28, 2009 combined with counts of casualties for 2003–2004, and after February 29, 2009, from hospital sources and media reports.For more info see farther down at .|
|Iraq Body Count||The(IBC) figure of documented civilian deaths from violence is 183,249 – 205,785 through February 2019. This includes reported civilian deaths due to Coalition and insurgent military action, sectarian violence and increased criminal violence. The IBC site states: “it should be noted that many deaths will probably go unreported or unrecorded by officials and media.”|
|Iraq Family Health Survey||for the . On January 9, 2008, the World Health Organization reported the results of the “Iraq Family Health Survey” published in . The study surveyed 9,345 households across Iraq and estimated 151,000 deaths due to violence (95% uncertainty range, 104,000 to 223,000) from March 2003 through June 2006. Employees of the Iraqi Health Ministry carried out the survey. See also farther down: .|
|Opinion Research Business||conducted August 12–19, 2007, estimated 1,033,000 violent deaths due to the Iraq War. The range given was 946,000 to 1,120,000 deaths. A nationally representative sample of approximately 2,000 Iraqi adults answered whether any members of their household (living under their roof) were killed due to the Iraq War. 22% of the respondents had lost one or more household members. ORB reported that “48% died from a gunshot wound, 20% from the impact of a car bomb, 9% from aerial bombardment, 6% as a result of an accident and 6% from another blast/ordnance.”|
|United Nations||The United Nations reported that 34,452 violent deaths occurred in 2006, based on data from morgues, hospitals, and municipal authorities across Iraq.|
|Lancet studies||Thefigure of 654,965 excess deaths through the end of June 2006 is based on household survey data. The estimate is for all excess violent and nonviolent deaths. That also includes those due to increased lawlessness, degraded infrastructure, poorer healthcare, etc. 601,027 deaths (range of 426,369 to 793,663 using a 95% ) were estimated to be due to violence. 31% of those were attributed to the Coalition, 24% to others, 46% unknown. The causes of violent deaths were (56%), (13%), other / (14%), (13%), (2%), unknown (2%). A copy of a was available for a high proportion of the reported deaths (92% of those households asked to produce one).|
|PLOS Medicine Study||Thestudy’s figure of approximately 460,000 excess deaths through the end of June 2011 is based on household survey data including more than 60% of deaths directly attributable to violence. The estimate is for all excess violent and nonviolent deaths. That also includes those due to increased lawlessness, degraded infrastructure, poorer healthcare, etc. 405,000 deaths (range of 48,000 to 751,000 using a 95% ) were estimated as excess deaths attributable to the conflict. They estimated at least 55,000 additional deaths occurred that the survey missed, as the families had migrated out of Iraq. The survey found that more than 60% of excess deaths were caused by violence, with the rest caused indirectly by the war, through degradation of infrastructure and similar causes. The survey notes that although car bombs received more significant press internationally, gunshot wounds were responsible for the majority (63%) of violent deaths. The study also estimated that 35% of violent deaths were attributed to the Coalition, and 32% to militias. Cardiovascular conditions accounted for about half (47%) of nonviolent deaths, chronic illnesses 11%, infant or childhood deaths other than injuries 12.4%, non-war injuries 11%, and cancer 8%.|
|Ali al-Shemari (previous Iraqi Health Minister)||Concerning war-related deaths (civilian and non-civilian), and deaths from criminal gangs,said that since the March 2003 invasion between 100,000 and 150,000 Iraqis had been killed. “Al-Shemari said on Thursday [November 9, 2006] that he based his figure on an estimate of 100 bodies per day brought to morgues and hospitals – though such a calculation would come out closer to 130,000 in total.” For more info see farther down at .|
|Costs of War Project||268,000 – 295,000 people were killed in violence in the Iraq war from March 2003 – Oct. 2018, including 182,272 – 204,575 civilians (using‘s figures), according to the findings of the Costs of War Project, a team of 35 scholars, legal experts, human rights practitioners, and physicians, assembled by and the , “about the costs of the post-9/11 wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and the related violence in Pakistan and Syria.” The civilian violent death numbers are “surely an underestimate.”|
Overview: Death estimates by group
|Iraqi Security Forces (aligned with Coalition)||From June 2003, through December 31, 2010, there have been 16,623 Iraqi military and police killed based on several estimates.The of the keeps a running total of ISF casualties. There is also a breakdown of ISF casualties at the website.|
|Iraqi insurgents||From June 2003, through September 30, 2011, there have been 26,320-27,000+ Iraqi insurgents killed based on several estimates.|
|Media and aid workers||136 journalists and 51 media support workers were killed on duty according to the numbers listed on source pages on February 24, 2009.(See .) 94 aid workers have been killed according to a November 21, 2007, article.|
|U.S. armed forces|
As of June 29, 2016, according to the U.S. Department of Defense casualty website, there were 4,424 total deaths (including bothand non-hostile) and 31,952 (WIA) as a result of the Iraq War. As a part of , which was initiated on September 1, 2010, there were 73 total deaths (including KIA and non-hostile) and 295 WIA. See the references for a breakdown of the wounded, injured, ill, those returned to duty (RTD), those requiring medical air transport, non-hostile-related medical air transports, non-hostile injuries, diseases, or other medical reasons.
|Coalition deaths by hostile fire||As of 23 October 2011, hostile-fire deaths accounted for 3,777 of the 4,799 total coalition military deaths.|
|Armed forces of other coalition countries||See .|
As of 24 February 2009, there were 318 deaths from the armed forces of other Coalition nations. 179 UK deaths and 139 deaths from other nations. Breakdown:
|Contractors||. At least 1,487 deaths between March 2003 and June 2011 according to the . 245 of those are from the U.S. Contractors are “Americans, Iraqis and workers from more than three dozen other countries.” 10,569 wounded or injured. Contractors “cook meals, do laundry, repair infrastructure, translate documents, analyze intelligence, guard prisoners, protect military convoys, deliver water in the heavily fortified Green Zone and stand sentry at buildings – often highly dangerous duties almost identical to those performed by many U.S. troops.” A July 4, 2007, article reported 182,000 employees of U.S.-government-funded contractors and subcontractors (118,000 Iraqi, 43,000 other, 21,000 U.S.).|
Overview: Iraqi injury estimates by source
|Iraqi Human Rights Ministry||Therecorded 250,000 Iraqi injuries between 2003 and 2012. The ministry had earlier reported that 147,195injuries were recorded for the period 2004–2008.|
|Iraqi Government||spokesman reported that 239,133 Iraqi injuries were recorded by the government between 2004 and 2011.|
|Iraq war logs||in October 2010, recorded 176,382 injuries, including 99,163 civilian injuries between January 2004 and December 2009.|
|Iraq Body Count||Theproject reported that there were at least 20,000 civilian injuries in the earliest months of the war between March and July 2003. A follow up report noted that at least 42,500 civilians were reported wounded in the first two years of the war between March 2003 and March 2005.|
|UN Assistance Mission for Iraq||The(UNAMI) reported that there were 36,685 Iraqi injuries during the year 2006.|
|Iraqi Health Ministry||Thereported that 38,609 Iraqi injuries had occurred during the year 2007, based on statistics derived from official Iraqi health departments’ records. Baghdad had the highest number of injuries (18,335), followed by Nineveh (6,217), Basra (1,387) and Kirkuk (655).|
Additional statistics for the Iraq War
- Deadliest single insurgent bombings:
- August 14, 2007. Truck bombs –
(in northwestern Iraq):
- 796 killed.
- August 14, 2007. Truck bombs –
- Other deadly days:
- November 23, 2006, (281 killed) and April 18, 2007, (233 killed):
- “4 bombings in Baghdad kill at least 183. … Nationwide, the number of people killed or found dead on Wednesday [, April 18, 2007, ] was 233, which was the second deadliest day in Iraq since Associated Press began keeping records in May 2005. Five , rounds and other attacks killed 281 people across Iraq on November 23, 2006, according to the AP count.”
- November 23, 2006, (281 killed) and April 18, 2007, (233 killed):
- As of January 12, 2007, 500 U.S. troops have undergone amputations due to the Iraq War. Toes and fingers are not counted.
- As of September 30, 2006, 725 American troops have had limbs amputated from wounds received in Iraq and Afghanistan.
- A 2006 study by the , which serves more critically injured soldiers than most VA hospitals, concluded that 62 percent of patients there had suffered a brain injury.
- In March 2003, U.S. military personnel were at a rate averaging about 350 per month. As of September 2007, this rate has increased to about 675 per month.
- U.S. military: number unknown.
- An October 18, 2005,
- “More than one in four U.S. troops have come home from the Iraq war with health problems that require medical or mental health treatment, according to ‘s first detailed screening of service members leaving a war zone.”
- An October 18, 2005,
- Iraqi combatants: number unknown
- As of November 4, 2006, the estimated that 1.8 million Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring countries, and 1.6 million were displaced internally, with nearly 100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month.
Iraqi invasion casualties
Franks reportedly estimated soon after the invasion that there had been 30,000 Iraqi casualties as of April 9, 2003.That number comes from the transcript of an October 2003 interview of U.S. Defense Secretary with journalist . They were discussing a number reported by .[ ] But neither could remember the number clearly, nor whether it was just for deaths, or both deaths and wounded.
A May 28, 2003,article reported at the Close the Iraq War of 5 Years, One Million Killed in Sectarian Strife “Extrapolating from the death-rates of between 3% and 10% found in the units around Baghdad, one reaches a toll of between 13,500 and 45,000 dead among troops and paramilitaries.
An October 20, 2003, study by theat in , estimated that for March 19, 2003, to April 30, 2003, the “probable death of approximately 11,000 to 15,000 Iraqis, including approximately 3,200 to 4,300 civilian noncombatants.”
The(IBC) documented a higher number of civilian deaths up to the end of the major combat phase (May 1, 2003). In a 2005 report, using updated information, the IBC reported that 7,299 civilians are documented to have been killed, primarily by U.S. air and ground forces. There were 17,338 civilian injuries inflicted up to May 1, 2003. The IBC says its figures are probably underestimates because: “many deaths will probably go unreported or unrecorded by officials and media.”
Iraqi civilian casualties
Iraq Body Count project
An independent UK/US group, the IBC project compiles reported Iraqi civilian deaths resulting from the invasion and occupation, including those caused directly by coalition military action, the, and those resulting from excess crime. The IBC maintains that the occupying authority has a responsibility to prevent these deaths under .
Iraq Body Count project data shows that the type of attack that resulted in the most civilian deaths was execution after abduction or capture. These accounted for 33% of civilian deaths and were overwhelmingly carried out by unknown actors including insurgents, sectarian militias and criminals.
The(IBC project), incorporating subsequent reports, has reported that by the end of the major combat phase up to April 30, 2003, 7,419 civilians had been killed, primarily by U.S. air-and-ground forces.
It shows a total range of at least 183,249 – 205,785 documented civilian deaths from violence in Iraq through February 2019.The continually updated IBC database page those numbers come from says: “Gaps in recording and reporting suggest that even our highest totals to date may be missing many civilian deaths from violence.”
This total represents civilian deaths due to war-related violence that have been reported by media organizations,-based reports, and official records. The IBC project has been criticized by some who believe it counts only a small percentage of the number of actual deaths because of its reliance on media sources. The IBC project’s director, , has stated, “We’ve always said our work is an undercount, you can’t possibly expect that a media-based analysis will get all the deaths.” However, the IBC project rejects many of these criticisms as exaggerated or misinformed.
Concerning the yearly totals, IBC project states: “All figures are taken from the “maximum” confirmed deaths in the IBC database. However, IBC’s rates and counts will rise over the coming months, as data is still being added to the IBC database for 2006 and other periods covered here.”
The IBC project released a report detailing the deaths it recorded between March 2003 and March 2005in which it recorded 24,865 civilian deaths. The report says the U.S. and its allies were responsible for the largest share (37%) of the 24,865 deaths. The remaining deaths were attributed to anti-occupations forces (9%), crime (36%) and unknown agents (11%). It also lists the primary sources used by the media – mortuaries, medics, Iraqi officials, eyewitnesses, police, relatives, U.S.-coalition, journalists, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), friends/associates and other.
The Iraq Body Count (IBC) project has recorded the numbers of civilians killed in violence since the 2003 invasion of Iraq based on a “comprehensive survey of commercial media and NGO-based reports, along with official records that have been released into the public sphere. Reports range from specific, incident based accounts to figures from hospitals, morgues, and other documentary data-gathering agencies.” The IBC was also given access to thedisclosures of the .
The Iraq Body count has been criticized by a number of scholars and studies for underestimating the death toll.According to a 2013 Lancet article, the Iraq Body Count is “a non-peer-reviewed but innovative online and media-centred approach that passively counted non-combatant civilian deaths as they were recorded in the media and available morgue reports. In passive surveillance no special effort is made to find those deaths that go unreported. The volunteer staff collecting data for the IBC have risked criticism that their data are inherently biased because of scarcity or absence of independent verification, variation in original sources of information, and underestimation of mortality from violence… In research circles, random cross-sectional cluster sampling survey methods are deemed to be a more rigorous epidemiological method in conflict settings.”
Following are the yearly IBC Project violent civilian death totals, broken down by month from the beginning of 2003.
The Iraqi political party(PK) said that its survey conducted between March and June 2003 throughout the non-Kurdish areas of Iraq tallied 36,533 civilians killed in those areas by June 2003. While detailed town-by-town totals were given by the PK spokesperson, details of methodology are very thin and raw data is not in the public domain. A still-less-detailed report on this study appeared some months later on ‘s website, and covered casualties up to October 2003.
Iraqi refugees crisis
Roughly 40 percent of Iraq’s middle class is believed to have fled, the U.N. said. Most are fleeing systematic persecution and have no desire to return. All kinds of people, from university professors to bakers, have been targeted by, and criminals. An estimated 331 school teachers were slain in the first four months of 2006, according to , and at least 2,000 Iraqi doctors have been killed and 250 kidnapped since the 2003 U.S. invasion.
Coalition military casualties
|Coalition deaths by country|
: 1TOTAL: 4,809
For the latest casualty numbers see the overview chart at the top of the page. See also the icasualties.org site:
Since the official handover of power to theon June 28, 2004, coalition soldiers have continued to come under attack in towns across Iraq.
, , and GlobalSecurity.org have month-by-month charts of American troop deaths in the Iraq War.
The combined total of coalition and contractor casualties in the conflict is now over ten times that of the 1990–1991. In the Gulf War, coalition forces suffered around 378 deaths, and among the Iraqi military, tens of thousands were killed, along with thousands of civilians.
Troops fallen ill, injured, or wounded
See the overview chart at the top of the page for recent numbers.
On August 29, 2006,reported: “Because of new body armor and advances in military medicine, for example, the ratio of combat-zone deaths to those wounded has dropped from 24 percent in Vietnam to 13 percent in Iraq and Afghanistan. In other words, the numbers of those killed as a percentage of overall casualties is lower.”
Many U.S. veterans of the Iraq War have reported a range of serious health issues, including, daily blood in urine and stool, , , frequent muscle , and other symptoms similar to the debilitating symptoms of “ ” reported by many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War, which some believe is related to the U.S.’s use of .
A study of U.S. veterans published in July 2004 inon (PTSD) and other mental disorders in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans found that 5 percent to 9.4 percent (depending on the strictness of the PTSD definition used) suffered from PTSD before deployment. After deployment, 6.2 percent to 19.9 percent suffered from PTSD. For the broad definition of PTSD that represents an increase of 10.5 percent (19.9 percent – 9.4 percent = 10.5 percent). That is 10,500 additional cases of PTSD for every 100,000 U.S. troops after they have served in Iraq. , an independent citizen journalism collective, is tracking and cataloging press-reported possible, probable, or confirmed incidents of post-deployment or combat-zone cases in its PTSD Timeline.
Information on injuries suffered by troops of other coalition countries is less readily available, but a statement inindicated that 2,703 U.K. soldiers had been medically evacuated from Iraq for wounds or injuries as of October 4, 2004, and that 155 U.K. troops were wounded in combat in the initial invasion.
has been reported by U.S. troops stationed in Iraq, including . Leishmaniasis, spread by biting , was diagnosed in hundreds of U.S. troops compared to just 32 during the .
Accidents and negligence
As of August 2008, sixteen American troops have died from accidental electrocutions in Iraq according to the Defense Department.One soldier had been electrocuted in a shower, while another had been electrocuted in a swimming pool. , the contractor responsible, had been warned by employees of unsafe practices, and was criticised following the revelations.
, host of ‘s , devoted his entire show on April 30, 2004, to reading the names of 721 of the 737 U.S. troops who had died thus far in Iraq. (The show had not been able to confirm the remaining sixteen names.) Claiming that this would constitute a political statement, the took the action of barring the seven ABC it controls from airing the show. The decision to censor the broadcast drew criticism from both sides, including members of the armed forces, opponents of the war, , and most notably , who denounced the move as “unpatriotic” and “a gross disservice to the public”.
As of January 18, 2007, there were at least 500 American amputees due to the Iraq War. The amputees represent 2.2% of the 22,700 U.S. troops wounded in action (5% for soldiers whose wounds prevented them returning to duty).
Traumatic brain injuries
By March 2009, the Pentagon estimated as many as 360,000 U.S. veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts may have suffered(TBI), including 45,000 to 90,000 veterans with persistent symptoms requiring specialized care.
In February 2007, one expert from theestimated that the number of undiagnosed TBIs were higher than 7,500.
According to, by November 2007 there were more than an estimated 20,000 US troops who had signs of brain injuries without being classified as wounded during combat in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Mental illness and suicide
A top, Colonel Charles Hoge, said in March 2008 that nearly 30% of troops on their third deployment suffered from serious problems, and that one year was not enough time between combat tours.
A March 12, 2007,article reported on a study published in the . About one third of the 103,788 veterans returning from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars seen at facilities between September 30, 2001, and September 30, 2005, were diagnosed with mental illness or a psycho-social disorder, such as and marital problems, including . More than half of those diagnosed, 56 percent, were suffering from more than one disorder. The most common combination was and depression.
In January 2008, the U.S. Army reported that the rate of suicide among soldiers in 2007 was the highest since the Army started counting in 1980. There were 121 suicides in 2007, a 20-percent jump over the prior year. Also, there were around 2100 attempted suicides and self-injuries in 2007.Other sources reveal higher estimates.
Time magazine reported on June 5, 2008:
Data contained in the Army’s fifth Mental Health Advisory Team report indicate that, according to an anonymous survey of U.S. troops taken last fall, about 12% of combat troops in Iraq and 17% of those in Afghanistan are takingor to help them cope. … About a third of soldiers in Afghanistan and Iraq say they can’t see a mental-health professional when they need to. When the number of troops in Iraq surged by 30,000 last year, the number of Army mental-health workers remained the same – about 200 – making counseling and care even tougher to get.
In the same article Time also reported on some of the reasons for the prescription drug use:
That imbalance between seeing the price of war up close and yet not feeling able to do much about it, the survey suggests, contributes to feelings of “intense fear, helplessness or horror” that plant the seeds of mental distress. “A friend was liquefied in the driver’s position on a tank, and I saw everything”, was a typical comment. Another: “A huge f______ bomb blew my friend’s head off like 50 meters from me.” Such indelible scenes – and wondering when and where the next one will happen – are driving thousands of soldiers to take antidepressants, military psychiatrists say. It’s not hard to imagine why.
Concern has been expressed by mental health professionals about the effects on the emotional health and development of returning veterans’ infants and children, due to the increased rates of interpersonal violence, posttraumatic stress, depression, and substance abuse that have been reported among these veterans.Moreover, the stressful effects of physical casualties and loss pose enormous stress for the primary caregiver that can adversely affect her or his parenting, as well as the couple’s children directly. The mental health needs of military families in the aftermath of combat exposure and other war-related trauma have been thought likely to be inadequately addressed by the military health system that separates mental health care of the returning soldier from his or her family’s care, the latter of whom is generally covered under a contracted, civilian managed-care system.
Iraqi insurgent casualties
In 2003, 597 insurgents were killed, according to the U.S. military.From January 2004 through December 2009 (not including May 2004 and March 2009), 23,984 insurgents were estimated to have been killed based on reports from Coalition soldiers on the frontlines. In the two missing months from the estimate, 652 were killed in May 2004, and 45 were killed in March 2009. In 2010, another 676 insurgents were killed. In January and March through October 2011, 451 insurgents were killed. Based on all of these estimates some 26,405 insurgents/militia were killed from 2003, up until late 2011.
However, this number could be an overestimate and may include some civilian fatalities, since there have been contradictions between the figures released by the U.S. military and those released by the Iraqi government. For example, the U.S. military’s number of insurgents killed in 2005, is 3,247, which is in contrast to the Iraqi government’s figure of 1,734.In 2007, 4,544 militants were killed according to the Iraqi ministries, while the U.S. military claimed 6,747 died. Also, in 2008, 2,028 insurgents were reported killed and in 2009, with the exception of the month of June, 488 were killed according to the . These numbers are also not in line with the U.S. military estimate of some 3,984 killed in 2008 and 2009.
U.S. military- and Iraqi Defence Ministry-provided numbers, including suicide bombers
- 2011 – 451 (not including February & August)
- 2010 – 676
- 2009 – 488 (not including June)
- 2008 – 2,028
- 2007 – 6,747 (U.S. military), 4,544 (Iraqi Defence Ministry)
- 2006 – 3,902
- 2005 – 3,247 (U.S. military), 1,734 (Iraqi Defence Ministry)
- 2004 – 6,801
- 2003 – 603
In addition as of August 22, 2009, approximately 1,719had also been reported killed.
- 2008 – 257
- 2007 – 442
- 2006 – 297
- 2005 – 478
- 2004 – 140
- 2003 (from August to December) – 32
Grand total – 21,221–26,405 insurgents dead
On September 28, 2006, an Al Qaeda leader claimed that 4,000 foreign insurgents had been killed in the war.
On June 6, 2008, an Iraqi Army official revealed that about 6,000 Al Qaeda fighters were among the insurgents killed since the start of the war up until April 2008.
Insurgent deaths are hard to estimate.
By July 2007, the Department of Labor recorded 933 deaths of contractors in Iraq.By April 2007, the stated that the number of civilian contractor deaths on US-funded projects in Iraq was 916. In January 2007, the reported that the Pentagon did not track contractor deaths in Iraq. In January 2017, an estimated 7,761 contractors had been injured in Iraq, but their nationality was not known. By the end 2006, civilian contractors suffered “3,367 injuries serious enough to require four or more days off the job.” The Labor Department had these numbers because it tracked workers’ compensation claims by injured workers or families of slain contractors under the federal Defense Base Act.
By November 2006, there were reports of a significant deterioration of the Iraq health care system as a result of the war.
In 2007, aand study found that 70% of 10,000 primary school students in the section of north Baghdad are suffering from trauma-related symptoms.
Subsequent articles inand have suggested that the number of cases of birth defects, , , illnesses and may have increased dramatically after the and , due to the presences of depleted uranium and chemicals introduced during American attacks, especially around , and Southern Iraq.
Total Iraqi casualties
Estimates of the total number of Iraqi war-related deaths are highly disputed. According toof the , “the consensus seems to be that around 150,000 people died violently as a result of the fighting between 2003 and 2006.”
In December 2005 President Bush said there were 30,000 Iraqi dead. White House spokesmanlater said it was “not an official government estimate”, and was based on media reports.
The United Nations reported that 34,452 violent civilian deaths occurred in 2006, based on data from morgues, hospitals, and municipal authorities across Iraq.
For 2006, a January 2, 2007, Associated Press article reports: “The tabulation by the Iraqi ministries of Health, Defence and Interior, showed that 14,298 civilians, 1,348 police and 627 soldiers had been killed in the violence that raged across the country last year. The Associated Press figure, gleaned from daily news reports from Baghdad, arrived at a total of 13,738 deaths.”reports in a January 2, 2007, article: “A figure of 3700 civilian deaths in October ‘’, the latest tally given by the UN based on data from the Health Ministry and the Baghdad morgue, was branded exaggerated by the Iraqi Government.” Iraqi government estimates include “people killed in bombings and shootings but not deaths classed as ‘criminal’.” Also, they “include no deaths among the many civilians wounded in attacks who may die later from wounds. Nor do they include many people kidnapped whose fate remains unknown.”
A June 25, 2006,article, “War’s Iraqi Death Toll Tops 50,000”, reported that their estimate of violent deaths consisted “mostly of civilians” but probably also included security forces and insurgents. It added that, “Many more Iraqis are believed to have been killed but not counted because of serious lapses in recording deaths in the chaotic first year after the invasion, when there was no functioning Iraqi government, and continued spotty reporting nationwide since.” Here is how the Times got its number: “The Baghdad morgue received 30,204 bodies from 2003 through mid-2006, while the Health Ministry said it had documented 18,933 deaths from ‘military clashes’ and ‘terrorist attacks’ from April 5, 2004, to June 1, 2006. Together, the toll reaches 49,137. However, samples obtained from local health departments in other provinces show an undercount that brings the total well beyond 50,000. The figure also does not include deaths outside Baghdad in the first year of the invasion.”
Iraq Living Conditions Survey (2004)
A study commissioned by the(UNDP), called the Iraq Living Conditions Survey (ILCS), sampled almost 22,000 households across all Iraqi provinces. It estimated 24,000 war-related violent deaths by May 2004 (with a 95 percent confidence interval from 18,000 to 29,000). This study did not attempt to measure what portion of its estimate was made up of civilians or combatants. It would include Iraqi military killed during the invasion, as well as “insurgents” or other fighters thereafter. This study has been criticized for various reasons. For more info see the section in that compares the Lancet and UNDP ILCS studies.
Thedone by public health experts from and published on October 29, 2004, in medical journal, estimated that 100,000 “excess” Iraqi deaths from all causes had occurred since the U.S. invasion began. The study did not attempt to measure how many of these were civilian, but the study’s authors have said they believe that the “vast majority” were non-combatants, based on 7% of the casualties being women and 46% being children under the age of 15 (including Falluja data). To arrive at these excess death figures, a survey was taken from 988 Iraqi households in 33 clusters throughout Iraq, in which the residents were asked how many people lived there and how many births and deaths there had been since the war began. They then compared the death rate with the average from the 15 months before the war. Iraqis were found to be 1.5 times more likely to die from all causes after the invasion (rising from 0.5% to 0.79% per year) than in the 15 months preceding the war, producing an estimate of 98,000 excess deaths. This figure excluded data from one cluster in , which was deemed too much of an outlier for inclusion in the national estimate. If it included data from Falluja, which showed a higher rate of violent deaths than the other 32 clusters combined, the increased death rate would be raised from 1.5 to 2.5-fold, violent deaths would be 58 times more likely with most of them due to air-strikes by coalition forces, and an additional 200,000 fatalities would be estimated.
Iraqiyun estimate (2005)
The Iraqi non-governmental organisation, Iraqiyun, estimated 128,000 deaths from the invasion until July 2005.A July 2005 (UPI) article said the number came from the chairman of the Iraqiyun humanitarian organization in Baghdad, Dr. Hatim al-‘Alwani. He said 55 percent of those killed were women, and children aged 12 and under. The UPI article reported: “Iraqiyun obtained data from relatives and families of the deceased, as well as from Iraqi hospitals in all the country’s provinces. The 128,000 figure only includes those whose relatives have been informed of their deaths and does not include those were abducted, assassinated or simply disappeared.” A 2010 book by Nicolas Davies reported the Iraqiyun estimate, and that Iraqiyun was affiliated with the political party of Interim President . Davies wrote: “The report specified that it included only confirmed deaths reported to relatives, omitting significant numbers of people who had simply disappeared without trace amid the violence and chaos.”
Theby Gilbert Burnham (of Johns Hopkins University) and co-authors estimated total excess deaths (civilian and non-civilian) related to the war of 654,965 excess deaths up to July 2006. The 2006 study was based on surveys conducted between May 20 and July 10, 2006. More households were surveyed than during the 2004 study, allowing for a 95% of 392,979 to 942,636 excess Iraqi deaths. Those estimates were far higher than other available tallies at the time.
The Burnham et al. study has been described as the most controversial study in survey research on armed conflict,and its findings have been widely disputed in the academic literature. Shortly after publication, the study’s estimate and methodology came under criticism from a number of sources, including the United States government, academics, and the Iraq Body Count. At the time, other experts, praised the methodology of the study. , who commissioned and directed the funding for the study defended the study. A 2008 systematic review of casualty estimates in the Iraq War in the journal Conflict and Health concluded that the highest quality studies have used “population-based methods” that have “yielded the highest estimates. A 2016 study described the Lancet study as seen “widely viewed among peers as the most rigorous investigations of Iraq War–related mortality among Iraqi civilians,” and argued that part of the criticism “may have been politically motivated.”
A number of peer-reviewed studies criticized the Lancet study on the basis of its methodology and exaggerated casualty numbers.The authors of the Lancet study were also accused of ethical breaches in terms of how the survey was conducted and in how the authors responded to requests for data and information. In 2009, the lead author of the Lancet study was censured by American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) for refusing to provide “several basic facts about” the study. AAPOR had over a 12-year period only formally censured two other individuals. In 2012, Michael Spagat noted that six peer-reviewed studies had identified shortcomings in the Lancet study, and that the Lancet authors had yet to make a substantive response to the critiques. According to Spagat, there is “ample reason” to discard Lancet study estimate. Columbia University statistician said in 2014 that “serious flaws have been demonstrated” in the Lancet study, and in 2015 that his impression was that the Lancet study “had pretty much been discredited”. Joshua Goldstein, professor emeritus of International Relations at American University, wrote that critics of the study “have argued convincingly that the sample method was biased.” According to University of Delaware sociologist in his book Stat-Spotting: A Field Guide to Identifying Dubious Data, “it seems likely that [the Lancet estimate] was too large”. Conflict scholars , Erik Melander and said there were “major biases” in the study, leading to oversampling of households affected by violence.
A 2008 study in thefound that the 2006 Lancet study may have considerably overestimated Iraq War casualties, that the study made “unusual” methodological choices, and called on the 2006 Lancet study authors to make all of their data available. The 2008 study was awarded “Article of the Year – 2008” by the Journal of Peace Research, with the jury of Lars-Erik Cederman (ETH Zürich), Jon Hovi (University of Oslo) and Sara McLaughlin Mitchell (University of Iowa) writing that the “authors show convincingly that previous studies which are based on a cross-street cluster-sampling algorithm (CSSA) have significantly overestimated the number of casualties in Iraq.” American University political scientist Thomas Zeitzoff said the Journal of Peace Research study showed the Lancet study to be “wildly inaccurate” due to its reliance on information from biased samples.
Michael Spagat criticized the 2006 Lancet study in a 2010 article for the journal Defence and Peace Economics. Spagat wrote that he found “some evidence relating to data fabrication and falsification” and “this evidence suggests that this survey cannot be considered a reliable or valid contribution towards knowledge about the extent of mortality in Iraq since 2003”.Spagat also chided the Lancet study for “ethical violations to the survey’s respondents including endangerment, privacy breaches and violations in obtaining informed consent”. In a letter to the journal , Spagat said that the Lancet study had failed replication in a study by the WHO (the Iraq Family Health Survey). Spagat noted that the lead author of the 2006 study had been censured by the American Association for Public Opinion Research for “repeatedly refusing to disclose the corresponding information for his survey”.
The Iraq Family Health Survey published by WHO researchers infound that the 2006 Lancet study results “considerably overestimated the number of violent deaths” and that the results are highly improbable. In comparing the two studies, peace researcher Kristine Eck of notes that the IFHS study which covered the same period as the Lancet survey “was based on a much larger sample (9,345 households compared to Burnham et al’s 1,849) in far more clusters (1,086 clusters compared to Burnham et al’s 47).” In comparing the two studies, Joachim Kreutz of Stockholm University and Nicholas Marsh of said the IFHS study produced “a more reliable estimate.” Oxford University political scientist wrote that the IFHS study was “more rigorous.”
Burnham, Edward J. Mills, and Frederick M. Burkle noted that the IFHS’s data indicated that Iraqi mortality increased by a factor of 1.9 following the invasion, compared to the factor of 2.4 found by Burnham et al., which translates to some 433,000 excess Iraqi deaths (violent and non-violent). Timothy R. Gulden considered it implausible that fewer than one-third of these excess deaths would have been violent in nature. Francisco J. Luquero and Rebecca F. Grais argued that the IFHS’s lengthy survey and use of IBC data as a proxy for particularly dangerous areas likely resulted in an underestimate of violent mortality, while Gulden hypothesized that respondents may have been reluctant to report violent deaths to researchers working with the Iraqi government.In a similar vein, Tirman observed that the Iraqi Health Ministry was affiliated with Shi’ite sectarians at the time, remarking that there was evidence that many violent deaths may have been recategorized as “non-violent” to avoid government retribution: “For example, the number of deaths by auto accidents rose by four times the pre-invasion rate; had this single figure been included in the violent deaths category, the overall estimate would have risen to 196,000.” Gulden even commented that “the IFHS results are easily in line with the finding of more than 600,000 violent deaths in the study by Burnham et al.” However, the authors of the IFHS rejected such claims: “Because the level of underreporting is almost certainly higher for deaths in earlier time periods, we did not attempt to estimate excess deaths. The excess deaths reported by Burnham et al. included only 8.2% of deaths from nonviolent causes, so inclusion of these deaths will not increase the agreement between the estimates from the IFHS and Burnham et al.”
A graph in the Lancet article purportedly demonstrating that its conclusions are in line with violence trends measured by the IBC and Defense Department used cherry-picked data and had two Y-axes;the authors conceded that the graph was flawed, but the Lancet never retracted it.
Iraq Health Minister estimate (2006)
In early November 2006said that he estimated between 100,000 and 150,000 people had been killed since the March 2003 U.S.-led invasion. The reported on his methodology: “Al-Shemari said on Thursday [, November 9, 2006,] that he based his figure on an estimate of 100 bodies per day brought to morgues and hospitals – though such a calculation would come out closer to 130,000 in total.” reported: “As al-Shemari issued the startling new estimate, the head of the Baghdad central morgue said Thursday he was receiving as many as 60 violent death victims each day at his facility alone. Dr. Abdul-Razzaq al-Obaidi said those deaths did not include victims of violence whose bodies were taken to the city’s many hospital morgues or those who were removed from attack scenes by relatives and quickly buried according to Muslim custom.”
From a November 9, 2006,article:
Each day we lost 100 persons, that means per month 3,000, per year it’s 36,000, plus or minus 10 percent”, al-Shemari said. “So by three years, 120,000, half-year 20,000, that means 140,000, plus or minus 10 percent”, he said, explaining how he came to the figures. “This includes all Iraqis killed – police, ordinary people, children”, he said, adding that people who were kidnapped and later found dead were also included in his estimate. He said the figures were compiled by counting bodies brought to “forensic institutes” or hospitals.
From a November 11, 2006,article:
An official with the ministry also confirmed the figure yesterday [November 10, 2006], but later said that the estimated deaths ranged between 100,000 and 150,000. “The minister was misquoted. He said between 100,000–150,000 people were killed in three-and-a-half years”, the official said.
D3 Systems poll (2007)
From February 25 to March 5, 2007, D3 Systemsconducted a poll for the , , and .
reported: “One in six says someone in their own household has been harmed. … 53 percent of Iraqis say a close friend or immediate family member has been hurt in the current violence. That ranges from three in 10 in the Kurdish provinces to, in Baghdad, nearly eight in 10.”
The methodology was described thus: “This poll… was conducted February 25 – March 5, 2007, through in-person interviews with a random national sample of 2,212 Iraqi adults, including oversamples inprovince, city, and the section of Baghdad. The results have a 2.5-point error margin.”
There was a field staff of 150 Iraqis in all. That included 103 interviewers, interviewing selected respondents at 458 locales across the country.“This poll asked about nine kinds of violence (car bombs, snipers or crossfire, kidnappings, fighting among opposing groups or abuse of civilians by various armed forces).”
Question 35 asked: “Have you or an immediate family member – by which I mean someone living in this household – been physically harmed by the violence that is occurring in the country at this time?” Here are the resultsin percentages:
17% of respondents reported that at least one member of the household had been “physically harmed by the violence that is occurring in the country at this time.” The survey did not ask whether multiple household members had been harmed.
Opinion Research Business (ORB) survey (2007, 2008)
A September 14, 2007,(ORB), an independent British polling agency, suggested that the total Iraqi violent death toll due to the Iraq War since the U.S.-led invasion was in excess of 1.2 million (1,220,580). These results were based on a survey of 1,499 adults in Iraq from August 12–19, 2007. ORB published an update in January 2008 based on additional work carried out in rural areas of Iraq. Some 600 additional interviews were undertaken and as a result of this the death estimate was revised to 1,033,000 with a given range of 946,000 to 1,120,000.
Participants of the ORB survey were asked the following question: “How many members of your household, if any, have died as a result of the conflict in Iraq since 2003 (ie as a result of violence rather than a natural death such as old age)? Please note that I mean those who were actually living under your roof.”
This ORB estimate has been strongly criticised as exaggerated and ill-founded inliterature. According to Carnegie Mellon University historian Jay D. Aronson, “Because this was a number that few people could take seriously (given the incredible magnitude of violence that would have had to take place daily for such a number to be even remotely possible), the ORB study has largely been ignored.”
Iraq Family Health Survey (IFHS, 2008)
Thepublished in 2008 in surveyed 9,345 households across Iraq and was carried out in 2006 and 2007. It estimated 151,000 deaths due to violence (95% uncertainty range, 104,000 to 223,000) from March 2003 through June 2006.
The study was done by the “Iraq Family Health Survey Study Group”, a collaborative effort of six organizations: the Federal Ministry of Health,; Kurdistan Ministry of Planning, ; Kurdistan Ministry of Health, Erbil; Central Organization for Statistics and Information Technology, Baghdad; World Health Organization Iraq office, , Jordan; World Health Organization, .
The Associated Press and Health Ministry (2009)
In April 2009, the Associated Press reported that Iraq Health Ministry had recorded (via death certificates issued by hospitals and morgues) a total of 87,215 violent deaths of Iraqi citizens between January 1, 2005, and February 28, 2009. The number excludes thousands of missing persons and civilians whose deaths were unrecorded; the government official who provided the data told the AP that if included, the number of dead for that period would be 10 to 20 percent higher.
The Associated Press used the Health Ministry tally and other data (including counts of casualties for 2003–2004, and after March 1, 2009, from hospital sources and media reports, in major part the Iraq Body Count) to estimate that more than 110,600 Iraqis were killed from the start of the war to April 2009. Experts interviewed by the AP found this estimate to be credible and an “important baseline” although necessarily an estimate because of unrecorded deaths, especially in inaccessible areas. While mass graves discovered over time shed more light on deaths in the Iraq War, the AP noted that “how many remain will never be known.”
PLOS Medicine (2013)
A 2013 study by Hagopian et al. inestimated that 461,000 Iraqis died as a result of the Iraq War. The study used a similar methodology as the 2006 Lancet study and had the lead author of the 2006 study as one of the 12 authors. According to one of the authors, Amy Hagopian, half of the casualties not resulting from violence were due to inadequate treatment of cardiovascular disease. Upon the study’s publication, Michael Spagat, a critic of the 2006 Lancet study, said that the 2013 study seemed “to fix most of the methodological flaws of the 2006 paper”. Spagat however noted that he found the large confidence interval of the 2013 study disconcerting. Other critics of the 2006 Lancet study mirrored Spagat’s views, noting that the 2013 study was an improvement but that the large confidence interval was concerning.
A 2017 study by Spagat and Van Weezel replicated the 2013 study by Hagopian et al. and found that the 500,000 casualty estimate by Hagopian et al. was not supported by data.Spagat and Van Weezel said that Hagopian et al. made many methodological errors. Hagopian et al. defended their original study, arguing that Van Weezel and Spagat misunderstood their method. Van Weezel and Spagat answered, saying that the response by Hagopian et al. “avoids the central points, addresses only secondary issues and makes ad hominem attacks.”
Some studies estimating the casualties due to the war in Iraq say there are various reasons why the estimates and counts may be low.
Morgue workers have alleged that official numbers underestimate the death toll.The bodies of some casualties do not end up in morgue and thus may go unrecorded. In 2006, The Washington Post reported: “Police and hospitals often give widely conflicting figures of those killed in major bombings. In addition, death figures are reported through multiple channels by government agencies that function with varying efficiency.”
A January 31, 2008 Perspective in thecontains the following discussion of undercounting Iraqi civilian casualties in household surveys:
… sometimes it was problematic or too dangerous to enter a cluster of households, which might well result in an undercount; data from the Iraq Body Count on the distribution of deaths among provinces were used to calculate estimates in these instances. If the clustering of violent deaths wasn’t accurately captured, that could also increase uncertainty. The sampling frame was based on a 2004 count, but the population has been changing rapidly and dramatically because of sectarian violence, the flight of refugees, and overall population migration. Another source of bias in household surveys is underreporting due to the dissolution of some households after a death, so that no one remains to tell the former inhabitants’ story.
noted in 2008 that
research has shown that household surveys typically miss 30 to 50 percent of deaths. One reason is that some families that have suffered violent deaths leave the survey area. … Some people are kidnapped and disappear, and others turn up months or years later in mass graves. Some are buried or otherwise disposed of without being recorded. In particularly violent areas, local governments have effectively ceased to function, and there are ineffective channels for collecting and passing information between hospitals, morgues and the central government.
Aside from, we can find no conflict situation where passive surveillance [used by the IBC] recorded more than 20% of the deaths measured by population-based methods [used in the Lancet studies]. In several outbreaks, disease and death recorded by facility-based methods underestimated events by a factor of ten or more when compared with population-based estimates. Between 1960 and 1990, newspaper accounts of political deaths in Guatemala correctly reported over 50% of deaths in years of low violence but less than 5% in years of highest violence.
The report describes no other specific examples except for this study of Guatemala.
wrote in October 2006 that even though heavy fighting could be observed, none of the Iraqi casualties in the skirmishes were reported on, which suggests undercounting.
A July 28, 2004,by published by reports that “some families bury their dead without notifying the authorities.”
, who runs the website , wrote in a February 5, 2006, article:
Of course, in conditions of active rebellion, the safer areas accessible to Western reporters are likely to be those under US/Coalition control, where deaths are, in turn, likely to be due to insurgent attacks. Areas of insurgent control, which are likely to be subject to US and Iraqi government attack, for example most ofprovince, are simply off-limits to these reporters. Thus, the realities of reporting imply that reporters will be witness to a larger fraction of deaths due to insurgents and a lesser proportion of deaths due to US and Iraqi government forces.
An October 19, 2006,article reports:
The deaths reported by officials and published in the news media represent only a fraction of the thousands of mutilated bodies winding up in Baghdad’s overcrowded morgue each month. … Bodies are increasingly being dumped in and around Baghdad in fields staked out by individualmilitias and insurgent groups. Iraqi security forces often refuse to go to the dumping grounds, leaving the precise number of bodies in those sites unknown. Civilian deaths, unlike those of American troops, often go unrecorded.
reported in January 2007 that Iraqi government casualty estimates do not count deaths classed as ‘criminal’, deaths of civilians who get wounded and die later from the wounds, or kidnap victims who have not been found.
The(IBC) stated in November 2004 that “we have always been quite explicit that our own total is certain to be an underestimate of the true position, because of gaps in reporting or recording”.
Systematic underreporting by U.S.
An April 2005 article byreports:
A week before she was killed by a suicide bomber, humanitarian workerforced military commanders to admit they did keep records of Iraqi civilians killed by US forces. … in an essay Ms Ruzicka wrote a week before her death on Saturday and published yesterday, the 28-year-old revealed that a Brigadier General told her it was “standard operating procedure” for US troops to file a report when they shoot a non-combatant. She obtained figures for the number of civilians killed in Baghdad between February 28 and April 5 , and discovered that 29 had been killed in firefights involving US forces and insurgents. This was four times the number of Iraqi police killed.
The December 2006 report of the(ISG) found that the United States has filtered out reports of violence in order to disguise its perceived policy failings in Iraq. A December 7, 2006, article reports that the ISG found that U.S. officials reported 93 attacks or significant acts of violence on one day in July 2006, yet “a careful review of the reports for that single day brought to light more than 1,100 acts of violence.” The article further reports:
The finding confirmed a September 8 McClatchy Newspapers report that U.S. officials excluded scores of people killed in car bombings and mortar attacks from tabulations measuring the results of a drive to reduce violence in Baghdad. By excluding that data, U.S. officials were able to boast that deaths from sectarian violence in the Iraqi capital had declined by more than 52 percent between July and August, McClatchy newspapers reported.
From the ISG report itself:
A murder of an Iraqi is not necessarily counted as an attack. If we cannot determine the source of a sectarian attack, that assault does not make it into the database. A roadside bomb or a rocket or mortar attack that doesn’t hurt U.S. personnel doesn’t count.
Casualties caused by criminal and political violence
In May 2004, Associated Press completed a surveyof the morgues in and surrounding provinces. The survey tallied violent deaths from May 1, 2003, when President declared an end to major combat operations, through April 30, 2004.
From the AP article:
In Baghdad, a city of about 5.6 million, 4,279 people were recorded killed in the 12 months through April 30, , according to figures provided by Kais Hassan, director of statistics at Baghdad’s, which administers the city’s morgues. “Before the war, there was a strong government, strong security. There were a lot of police on the streets and there were no illegal weapons”, he said during an AP reporter’s visit to the morgue. “Now there are few controls. There is crime, revenge killings, so much violence.” The figure does not include most people killed in big terrorist bombings, Hassan said. The cause of death in such cases is obvious so bodies are usually not taken to the morgue, but given directly to victims’ families. Also, the bodies of killed fighters from groups like the al-Mahdi Army are rarely taken to morgues.
Accidental trauma deaths from car accidents, falls, etc. are not included in the numbers. The article reports that the numbers translate to 76 killings per 100,000 people in Baghdad, compared to 39 in, Colombia, 7.5 in , and 2.4 in neighboring Jordan. The article states that there were 3.0 killings per 100,000 people in Baghdad in 2002 (the year before the war). Morgues surveyed in other parts of Iraq also reported large increases in the number of homicides. , south of Baghdad, increased from an average of one homicide per month in 2002 to an average of 55 per month in the year following the invasion; in , north of Baghdad, where there were no homicides in 2002, the rate had grown to an average of 17 per month; in the northern province of , the rate had increased from 3 per month in 2002 to 34 per month in the survey period.
- See section below
- Hagopian, Amy; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Takaro, Tim K.; Esa Al Shatari, Sahar A.; Rajaratnam, Julie; Becker, Stan; Levin-Rector, Alison; Galway, Lindsay; Hadi Al-Yasseri, Berq J.; Weiss, William M.; Murray, Christopher J.; Burnham, Gilbert; Mills, Edward J. (October 15, 2013). . .. PLoS Medicine. 10 (10): e1001533. : .
- via . April 24, 2009. September 30, 2018, at the . Full AP article.
- via . April 23, 2009. October 18, 2011, at the .
- July 26, 2017, at the . From the . The database page says: “Gaps in recording and reporting suggest that even our highest totals to date may be missing many civilian deaths from violence.”
- (October 23, 2010). January 5, 2016, at the . .
- Rogers, Simon (October 23, 2010). January 7, 2011, at the . Data Blog – Facts Are Sacred (blog on ). Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- December 8, 2016, at the . .
- Carlstrom, Gregg (October 22, 2010; last modified October 24, 2010 (at November 21, 2010)). October 23, 2010, at the . . Retrieved November 21, 2010.
- . Retrieved October 23,2010.. . October 22, 2010. from the original on October 23, 2010
- Leigh, David (October 22, 2010). July 30, 2013, at the . . Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Editors – Katz, Jeffrey; Doug Roberts, Doug; Sutherland, J.J. (undated). May 11, 2018, at the (bar chart of various death toll estimates). . Retrieved November 21, 2010.
- (October 24, 2010). November 9, 2011, at the . . Retrieved November 21, 2010.
- (undated). February 1, 2016, at the (gateway/portal page of site). . Retrieved November 21, 2010.
- (October 22, 2010). October 26, 2010, at the . . Retrieved November 21, 2010.
- November 9, 2009, at . Source of IBC quote on undercounting by media is November 9, 2009, at .
-  June 11, 2008, at the . (WHO).
- (January 9, 2008). December 13, 2013, at the . (WHO). Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- Alkhuzai AH, Ahmad IJ, Hweel MJ, Ismail TW, et al. (2008). . Retrieved April 20, 2018.. . 358 (2): 484–93. : . . from the original on April 21, 2018
- . Retrieved September 2, 2010. (January 10, 2008). . BBC News. from the original on February 8, 2010
- Boseley, Sarah (January 10, 2008). . . Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- Brown, Davia; Partlow, Joshua (January 10, 2008). November 10, 2016, at the . . Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- February 1, 2008, at the by . January 2008.
- (PDF). Archived from (PDF) on September 25, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2007. October 2, 2007, at the . September 2007. Opinion Research Business. PDF report:
- Susman, Tina (September 14, 2007). May 31, 2014, at the . (via ). Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- Beaumont, Peter; Walters, Joanna (September 16, 2007). December 13, 2013, at the . (via ). Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- Staff writer (September 18, 2007). November 30, 2012, at the . . Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- () Tavernise, Sabrina (January 17, 2007). November 7, 2016, at the . .
- (PDF). Archived from (PDF) on September 7, 2015. (242 KB). By Gilbert Burnham, Riyadh Lafta, Shannon Doocy, and . ,October 11, 2006.
- Supplement to 2006 Lancet study: (PDF). (PDF) from the original on January 17, 2007. Retrieved January 4, 2007. (603 KB). By Gilbert Burnham, Shannon Doosy, Elizabeth Dzeng, Riyadh Lafta, and Les Roberts.
- Opinion essay (numerous signatories) (October 21, 2006). January 24, 2016, at the . . Retrieved September 2, 2010
-  September 18, 2008, at the . . November 9, 2006.
- (November 11, 2006). March 3, 2016, at the . / (via ). Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- February 20, 2019, at the . (costsofwar.org). at . See February 19, 2019, at the .
- February 21, 2019, at the . November 2018. By Neta C. Crawford, February 19, 2019, at the . at .
- February 19, 2019, at the . Nov 9, 2018. By Jessica Corbett, staff writer, .
- February 19, 2019, at the . Nov 9, 2018. By Daniel Brown, .
- 260 killed in 2003,. Retrieved December 20, 2014. thus giving a total of 16,623 dead June 28, 2011, at the 15,196 killed from 2004 through 2009 (with the exceptions of May 2004 and March 2009), July 30, 2013, at the 67 killed in March 2009, February 26, 2012, at the and 1,100 killed in 2010, . Archived from on January 16, 2013
- (undated; updated “every two weeks”). May 1, 2012, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010. (For the latest total of Iraqi police and military killed download the PDF file of the most recent Iraq Index, and look in the table of contents.)
- (undated). March 21, 2011, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010. (An iCasualties.org breakdown of deaths in Iraq. See the ISF (Iraqi Security Forces) column.)
- 597 killed in 2003,. Retrieved July 3, 2011. . Archived from on January 12, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2011. . Archived from on October 2, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2011. thus giving a total of 26,320 dead April 28, 2011, at the , 23,984 killed from 2004 through 2009 (with the exceptions of May 2004 and March 2009), July 30, 2013, at the 652 killed in May 2004, December 2, 2010, at the 45 killed in March 2009, September 3, 2009, at the 676 killed in 2010, August 4, 2014, at the 366 killed in 2011 (with the exception of February), July 14, 2014, at the February 9, 2015, at the August 12, 2014, at the February 9, 2015, at the . Archived from on January 11, 2012
- August 11, 2009, at the .
- (CPJ). July 17, 2012, at the .
- (CPJ). September 3, 2012, at the .
-  Ryan, Missy (November 21, 2007). March 31, 2008, at the . .
- April 9, 2015, at the .
- John Pike. . Retrieved October 27, 2014.. from the original on April 28, 2011
- iCasualties.org (was lunaville.org). Benicia, California. Patricia Kneisler, et al.., February 6, 2016, at the .
- June 10, 2009, at the . , From March 2003 onwards.
- Many official U.S. tables at March 3, 2011, at the
- (PDF). Archived from (PDF) on June 2, 2011.
- (PDF). (PDF) from the original on July 6, 2009. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
- June 2, 2011, at the . . “Prepared by: . Statistical Information Analysis Division.”
- March 26, 2010, at the .
- April 18, 2009, at the .
- Debusmann, Bernd (July 3, 2007). February 20, 2009, at the . . Retrieved September 2, 2010. 10,569 wounded and 933 deaths in Iraq. 224 are U.S. citizens.
- March 20, 2014, at the . Incomplete list.
- . . April 30, 2007.
- February 24, 2010, at the .
- (PDF). Archived from (PDF) on February 5, 2010. (10.8 MB).
- Broder, John M.; Risen, James (May 19, 2007). November 7, 2016, at the . . Retrieved September 2, 2010. “workers from more than three dozen other countries”.
- Roberts, Michelle (February 24, 2007). often highly dangerous duties almost identical to those performed by many U.S. troops.” June 13, 2008, at the . (via the ). Retrieved September 2, 2010. “…
- Miller, T. Christian (July 4, 2007). July 7, 2013, at the . . Retrieved September 2, 2010. 182,000 contractors: “21,000 Americans, 43,000 foreign contractors and about 118,000 Iraqis”.
- January 17, 2013, at the . March 14, 2012
- March 31, 2018, at the . Associated Press October 14, 2009
- December 29, 2016, at the . February 29, 2012
- , October 22, 2010
- January 6, 2013, at the . Iraq Body Count August 7, 2003
- August 6, 2012, at the . Iraq Body Count July 19, 2005
- September 11, 2012, at the .
- May 17, 2013, at the . June 21, 2008
- (January 17, 2007). March 21, 2009, at the . (via ). Retrieved September 2, 2010.
-  Hurst, Steven R.; Frayer, Lauren. April 20, 2007, at the . (via ‘ ).
- (January 18, 2007). January 21, 2007, at the . . Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- Zimmerman, Eilene (November 8, 2006). November 15, 2007, at the . . Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- January 17, 2013, at the . By Moni Basu. November 19, 2006. .
- Zoroya, Gregg (October 18, 2005). September 21, 2012, at the . . Retrieved September 2, 2010.
-  Higgins, Alexander G. (November 3, 2006). September 4, 2007, at the . .
-  July 30, 2006, at the . United States Department of Defense: News Transcript. April 19, 2004.
- Steele, Jonathan (May 28, 2003). . . Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- (October 28, 2003). October 17, 2006, at the . (via ). Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- Conetta, Carl (October 23, 2003). August 31, 2009, at the . (via ). Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- (PDF). (PDF) from the original on November 24, 2006. Retrieved November 24, 2006. (650 KB). . Report covers from March 20, 2003, to March 19, 2005, based on data available by June 14, 2005.
- December 1, 2017, at the The New England Journal of Medicine
- (April 28, 2006). March 5, 2016, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Fuller, David. (April 28, 2006) March 5, 2016, at the . (via ). Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- (PDF). (PDF) from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- January 5, 2016, at the . Press Release 15, Iraq Body Count.
- . Retrieved October 22, 2011.. Iraq Body Count. from the original on September 28, 2011
- Hagopian, Amy (2018). “How to estimate (and not to estimate) war deaths: A reply to van Weezel and Spagat”. Research & Politics. 5: 205316801775390. : .
- Siegler, Anne; Roberts, Leslie; Balch, Erin; Bargues, Emmanuel; Bhalla, Asheesh; Bills, Corey; Dzeng, Elizabeth; Epelboym, Yan; Foster, Tory (July 2008). “Media coverage of violent deaths in iraQ: an opportunistic capture-recapture assessment”. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 23 (4): 369–371. : . . .
- Carpenter, Dustin; Fuller, Tova; Roberts, Les (June 2013). “WikiLeaks and Iraq Body Count: the sum of parts may not add up to the whole-a comparison of two tallies of Iraqi civilian deaths”. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 28 (3): 223–229. : . . .
- Burckle, Frederick (2013). . Retrieved February 8, 2018.. Lancet. 381 (9870): 877–879. : . . from the original on November 21, 2015
-  Janabi, Ahmed (July 31, 2004). . . Archived from on September 11, 2005.
- Lochhead, Carolyn (January 16, 2007). May 14, 2012, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- August 28, 2008, at the . At
- April 28, 2011, at the . At GlobalSecurity.org
- Knickerbocker, Brad (August 29, 2006). March 9, 2007, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Hastings, Deborah (August 12, 2006). . Retrieved September 3, 2010.. (via . Archived from on July 3, 2014
- () Hoge, M.D., Charles W.; Castro, PhD, Carl A.; Messer, PhD, Stephen C.; McGurk, PhD, Dennis; Cotting, PhD, Dave I.; and Koffman, M.D., M.P.H., Robert L. (July 1, 2004). January 21, 2005, at the . .
- . Retrieved September 3, 2010.. . Archived from on September 18, 2012
- Korzeniewski, K; Olszański, R (2004). “Leishmaniasis among soldiers of stabilization forces in Iraq. Review article”. Int Marit Health. 55 (1–4): 155–63. .
- A REGION INFLAMED: MEDICINE; Hundreds of U.S. Troops Infected by Parasite Borne by Sand Flies, Army Says By DONALD G. MCNEIL JR.December 6, 2003 January 10, 2018, at the
- . Retrieved September 3, 2010. (July 25, 2008). . (via . from the original on May 30, 2009
- (. Retrieved April 1, 2010.) Risen, James (May 4, 2008). . . from the original on August 11, 2014
- . Retrieved May 13, 2018.. from the original on May 13, 2018
- . Retrieved May 13, 2018.. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. from the original on May 12, 2017
- . Retrieved May 13, 2018.. PBS NewsHour. March 31, 2005. from the original on May 13, 2018
- Zoroya, Gregg (March 4, 2009). September 11, 2012, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Mason, Michael (February 23, 2007). December 14, 2010, at the . . Retrieved November 21, 2010.
- Zoroya, Gregg (November 22, 2007). January 7, 2012, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- (June 5, 2008). January 14, 2009, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Wallis, Claudia (March 12, 2007). March 15, 2007, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- (January 31, 2008). February 3, 2008, at the . (via ). Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- . April 26, 2010. .
- ; Davis, B.E. (2007). “Parenting in Times of Crisis”. . 36(4): 216–222. : .
- . Retrieved January 17, 2010.. from the original on July 15, 2011
- Sayers, S.L.; Farrow, V.A.; Ross, J.; Oslin, D.W. (2009). “Family Problems Among Recently Returned Military Veterans Referred for a Mental Health Evaluation”. . 70 (2): 163–170. : .
- McFarlane, A.C. (2009). “Military Deployment: The Impact on Children and Family Adjustment and the Need for Care”. . 22 (4): 369–373. : . .
- Michaels, Jim (September 27, 2007). . Retrieved September 3, 2010.. . from the original on April 28, 2011
- Leigh, David (October 22, 2010). . Retrieved December 11, 2016.. The Guardian. London. from the original on July 30, 2013
- . Retrieved October 22, 2011.. Reliefweb.int. April 1, 2009. from the original on September 3, 2009
- Viola Gienger (December 30, 2010). . Retrieved October 27, 2014.. Bloomberg. from the original on August 4, 2014
- . Retrieved October 27, 2014.. The Age. February 2011. from the original on July 14, 2014
- . Retrieved October 27, 2014.. United Press International. from the original on February 9, 2015
- . Retrieved October 27, 2014.. from the original on August 12, 2014
- . Retrieved October 27, 2014.. March 22, 2018. from the original on February 9, 2015
- . Archived from on January 11, 2012.
- . Retrieved October 27, 2014.. MSN. Archived from on December 8, 2011
- January 12, 2012, at the
- October 2, 2011, at the
- November 11, 2011, at the
- (January 4, 2006). October 18, 2012, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- . Retrieved October 27, 2014.. Reuters. Reuters. December 31, 2007. from the original on November 11, 2014
- (January 1, 2009). June 12, 2011, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- . Retrieved October 27, 2014.. from the original on November 11, 2014
- 25,287 killed from 2003 through 2009, of which 19,429 were killed up to September 22, 2007, April 28, 2011, at the with and additional 1,865 killed until the end of 2007, leaving 3,984 to have died in 2008 and 2009
- Calderwood, James (April 2, 2007). . Retrieved September 3, 2010.. Associated Press (via ). from the original on October 26, 2012
- Jervis, Rick (May 9, 2006). . Retrieved September 3, 2010.. . from the original on August 12, 2007
- Jervis, Rick (January 22, 2006). . Retrieved September 3, 2010.. . from the original on May 15, 2011
- February 18, 2010, at the page 80, Figure 5
-  November 11, 2006, at the . Associated Press (via ). September 28, 2006.
- (subscription required) (June 6, 2008). June 7, 2008, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- (July 26, 2005). December 1, 2006, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- (September 8, 2004). August 16, 2010, at the . (via ). Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- . Retrieved February 9, 2018.. Reuters. 2007. from the original on February 10, 2018
- Ivanovich, David; Clanton, Brett (January 28, 2007). February 15, 2010, at the . . Retrieved September 2, 2010.
-  Roberts, Michelle (February 23, 2007). . .
- Roug, Louise (November 11, 2006). November 4, 2012, at the . .
- Palmer, James (March 19, 2007). November 15, 2007, at the . . Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- Burkle, Frederick; Garfield, Richard (March 16, 2013). . Retrieved November 29, 2018.. The Lancet. 381 (9870): 877–879. : .
- Jamail, Dahr (March 16, 2013). . Retrieved November 29, 2018.. Al Jazeera. from the original on November 29, 2018
- Krause, Keith (April 1, 2017). . Retrieved October 5, 2018.. Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal. 3 (1): 90–115. : . . from the original on July 14, 2018
- , September 19, 2017, at the . White House transcript. December 12, 2005. Says 30,000 Iraqi dead.
- (December 12, 2005). December 1, 2007, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010. “I would say 30,000, more or less, have died as a result of the initial incursion and the ongoing violence against Iraqis”, Bush said. writes: “White House spokesman later said Bush was basing his statement on media reports, ‘not an official government estimate.'”
- (January 3, 2007). January 4, 2007, at the . (via ). Retrieved September 3, 2010.
-  Macdonald, Alastair (January 2, 2007). November 15, 2007, at the . .
- Roug, Louise; Smith, Doug (June 25, 2006). March 17, 2010, at the . (via ). Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- . . Archived from on May 29, 2006.
- Roberts, Les; Lafta, Riyadh; Garfield, Richard; Khudhairi, Jamal; Burnham, Gilbert (October 29, 2004). “Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey”. . : . .. 368 (9545): 1421–8.
- . CNN. October 29, 2004. Archived from on June 15, 2006.
- . Retrieved December 18, 2010. too. November 3, 2011, at the . . July 12, 2005. Archived here . Archived from on August 21, 2008
- Blood on Our Hands: The American Invasion and Destruction of Iraq. Book by Nicolas J.S. Davies. Published June 2010. , . Iraqiyun info is from .
- December 28, 2010, at the By Nicolas Davies. October 24, 2010. Article is here December 14, 2010, at the , too.
- Kahl, Colin H. (2007). “In the Crossfire or the Crosshairs? Norms, Civilian Casualties, and U.S. Conduct in Iraq”. International Security. 32 (1): 7–46. : . .
- Kristine Eck, “Survey Research in Conflict and Post-conflict Societies” in (eds. Kristine Hoglund & Magnus Oberg), Routledge: 2011, p. 171.
- Montclos, Marc-Antoine Pérouse de (2016). “Numbers Count: Dead Bodies, Statistics, and the Politics of Armed Conflicts”. Violence, Statistics, and the Politics of Accounting for the Dead. Demographic Transformation and Socio-Economic Development. Springer, Cham. pp. 47–69. : . .
- Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha; Williams, Nathalie E. (2012). . .. Journal of Official Statistics. 28 (2): 153–171. .
- Spagat, Michael; Mack, Andrew; Cooper, Tara; Kreutz, Joakim (2009). “Estimating War Deaths: An Arena of Contestation”. The Journal of Conflict Resolution. 53 (6): 934–950. . : . .
- Jewell, Nicholas P.; Spagat, Michael; Jewell, Britta L. (2018). “Accounting for Civilian Casualties: From the Past to the Future”. Social Science History. 42 (3): 379–410.
the Iraq mortality survey of Burnham et al. (2006) was highly controversial and had major weaknesses (Spagat 2010), some of which led to an official censure by a professional association of survey researchers.: . .
- Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha; Williams, Nathalie E. (2012). . .
the methods they used to obtain their unusually high estimate were subsequently widely criticized. Journal of Official Statistics. 28 (2): 153–171. .
- . What Do We Know About Civil War?. Rowman & Littlefield. 2016.
- Seybolt, Taylor B.; Aronson, Jay D.; Fischhoff, Baruch, eds. (July 11, 2013). . Retrieved October 5, 2018.
In letters to the editor of The Lancet, and subsequent commentaries and peer-reviewed articles, scientists, statisticians, public health advocates, and medical researchers voiced concern about a range of technical and ethical issues, from the methods for choosing the households to be surveyed to the prac- tices used by interviewers to gather information from individuals. There were also con- cerns about the pre-war mortality rates chosen to compare with the post-invasion rates, as well as a host of other issues.. Studies in Strategic Peacebuilding. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. . from the original on March 24, 2019
- (PRIO), Peace Pesearch Institute Oslo. . Retrieved July 14, 2018.. from the original on July 14, 2018
- Knickmeyer, Ellen (October 19, 2006). May 19, 2017, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Badkhen, Anna (October 12, 2006). March 10, 2007, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- (March 26, 2007). March 30, 2007, at the . (via ‘). Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- (PDF). (PDF) from the original on September 27, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
- March 9, 2012, at the . By John Tirman. January 21, 2008. .
- PR Watch / By Diane Farsetta (March 1, 2008). . Retrieved October 10, 2012.. AlterNet. from the original on October 25, 2012
- AlterNet / By John Tirman (July 19, 2011). . Retrieved October 10, 2012.. AlterNet. Archived from on March 11, 2012
- . Retrieved October 10, 2012.. Mit.edu. from the original on October 28, 2012
- . Retrieved October 10, 2012.. HuffPost. February 13, 2012. from the original on March 12, 2012
- Tapp, Christine; Burkle, Frederich; Wilson, Kumanan; Takaro, Tim; Guyatt, Gordon; Amad, Hani; Mills, Edward (2008). “Iraq War mortality estimates: a systematic review”. Conflict and Health. 2 (1).
- Levy, Barry; Sidel, Victor (2016). “Documenting the effects of armed conflict on population health”. Annual Review of Public Health. 37: 205–218. : . .
- Johnson, Neil F.; Spagat, Michael; Gourley, Sean; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Reinert, Gesine (September 1, 2008). “Bias in Epidemiological Studies of Conflict Mortality”. Journal of Peace Research. 45 (5): 653–663. : . .
- (PRIO), Peace Pesearch Institute Oslo. . Retrieved October 18, 2017.. prio.org. from the original on October 19, 2017
- Daponte, Beth Osborne (2007). “Wartime estimates of Iraqi civilian casualties”. International Review of the Red Cross. 89 (868): 943–957. : . .
- . Retrieved February 9, 2018.. www.warc.com. from the original on February 10, 2018
- Rosenblum, Michael A; van der Laan, Mark J. (January 7, 2009). . .. The International Journal of Biostatistics. 5 (1): Article 4. : . .
- Marker, David A. (2008). “Review: Methodological Review of “Mortality after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq: A Cross-Sectional Cluster Sample Survey““. The Public Opinion Quarterly. 72 (2): 345–363. : . .
- Spagat, Michael (February 1, 2010). “Ethical and Data‐Integrity Problems in the Second Lancet Survey of Mortality in Iraq”. Defence and Peace Economics. 21 (1): 1–41. : . .
- Spagat, Michael (May 1, 2009). “Iraq Study Failed Replication Test”. Science. 324(5927): 590. : . . .
- Iraq Family Health Survey Study Group (January 31, 2008). “Violence-Related Mortality in Iraq from 2002 to 2006”. New England Journal of Medicine. 358 (5): 484–493. : . . .
- Spagat, Michael (April 20, 2012). Estimating the Human Costs of War: The Sample Survey Approach. : .
- Roberts, Adam (June 2, 2010). “Lives and Statistics: Are 90% of War Victims Civilians?”. Survival. 52 (3): 115–136. : . .
- Aronson, Jay D. (June 12, 2013). . Oxford University Press. pp. 39, 41. : . .
- . from the original on February 9, 2018.
- Gelman, Andrew (2014). . from the original on February 10, 2018.
- Gelman, Andrew (April 27, 2015). . Retrieved February 9, 2018.. The Washington Post. . from the original on February 10, 2018
- Goldstein, Joshua (2011). . Retrieved July 14, 2018.. www.winningthewaronwar.com. Dutton/Plume (Penguin). from the original on September 6, 2018
- Best, Joel (2013). Stat-Spotting: A Field Guide to Identifying Dubious Data (1 ed.). University of California Press. .[ ]
- Zeitzoff, Thomas (May 26, 2016). . Retrieved July 14, 2018.. Political Violence at a Glance. from the original on August 26, 2018
- . Retrieved July 14, 2018.. Routledge.com. 2012. pp. 59–60. from the original on July 14, 2018
- Burnham, G. M (July 24, 2008). “Correspondence: Violence-Related Mortality in Iraq, 2002–2006”. . 359 (4): 431–434. : . .
- (2011). The Deaths of Others: The Fate of Civilians in America’s Wars. . pp. 327–329. .
- . Retrieved February 10,2019.. www.thelancet.com. 2007
- Pedersen, Jon; Degomme, Olivier; Guha-Sapir, Debarati (January 13, 2007). . The Lancet. 369 (9556): 102, author reply 103–4. : . . .
- Spagat, Michael (April 13, 2018). . Retrieved February 9, 2019.. . from the original on February 9, 2019
- Roberts, Les; Doocy, Shannon; Lafta, Riyadh; Burnham, Gilbert (January 13, 2007). . The Lancet. 369 (9556): 103–104. : . .
- Todd, Robb S. (November 9, 2006). October 18, 2007, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Hurst, Steven R. (November 10, 2006). January 26, 2017, at the . Associated Press (via ). Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- (March 19, 2007). March 20, 2007, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Langer, Gary (March 19, 2007). October 2, 2007, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- May 5, 2009, at the . . See links in March 2007 section titled “March 2007 National Survey of Iraq”.
- July 4, 2008, at the . March 19, 2007. Detailed results with tables, charts, and graphs.
- April 11, 2007, at the . D3 Systems poll (February 25 to March 5, 2007) for , , and .
- (March 19, 2007). August 5, 2010, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010. August 5, 2010, at the .
- (March 19, 2007). October 29, 2009, at the . March 19, 2007. ABC News. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- February 19, 2009, at the . January 28, 2008. . .
- July 19, 2011, at the By Michael Spagat and Josh Dougherty
- . Retrieved October 18, 2017.. Pacific Standard. from the original on October 19, 2017
- . Retrieved October 18, 2017.. from the original on October 19, 2017
- Spagat, Michael; van Weezel, Stijn (October 1, 2017). “Half a million excess deaths in the Iraq war: Terms and conditions may apply”. Research & Politics. 4 (4): 2053168017732642. : . .
- Spagat, Michael (2018). “Terms and conditions still apply: A rejoinder to Hagopian et al”. Research & Politics. 5: 205316801875785. : .
- . Retrieved February 9, 2018.. NPR. from the original on February 10, 2018
- Cooney, Daniel (May 23, 2004). July 16, 2011, at the . Associated Press (via ). Retrieved September 3, 2010. (Article is here May 27, 2009, at the also (via the ). Retrieved September 3, 2010.)
- January 17, 2013, at the . NEJM January 31, 2008. Catherine A. Brownstein, M.P.H., and John S. Brownstein, PhD
- (October 11, 2006). February 6, 2016, at the . Informed Comment (blog at juancole.com). Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- (July 28, 2004). ( ). . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- (February 5, 2006). May 4, 2006, at the Web Archives. . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- (November 7, 2004). October 5, 2007, at the . . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Buncombe, Andrew (April 20, 2005). January 1, 2007, at the . (via ). Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Landay, Jonathan S. (December 7, 2006). December 10, 2006, at the . (via ). Retrieved September 3, 2010.
This article’s use of August 2013)( )may not follow Wikipedia’s policies or guidelines. (
(Additional links not found in the two reference sections higher up.)
- U.S. military casualties only
- , database of all U.S. service-member casualties from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and (OEF)
- , interactive
- , chart
- , globalsecurity.org
- . A list of U.S. military casualties by date order beginning 2003 and updated daily.
- – documentary interviews U.S. military casualties. In English with very short section in Dutch that is missing English subtitles.
- . February 6, 2011. By Jennifer Senior. magazine.
- Coalition (including U.S. and contractors) casualties only
- . “ePluribus Media has repeatedly filed FOIA requests on a range of topics related to contractors in Iraq.”
- Iraqi casualties only
- Les Roberts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o5vD_Ub2K_c on October 25, 2006. at the , on April 13, 2005; uploaded in
- Conetta, Carl (February 18, 2004). .
- Schwartz, Michael (July 6, 2007). . .
- . . October 28, 2004.
- Korb, Lawrence J.; Biddle, Stephen (September 25, 2007). . .
- A June 2007 working paper by the
- Casualty photos
- Kamiya, Gary (August 23, 2005). . . .
- . Slideshow narrated by the photographer Michael Kamber. May 23, 2007. . Article: . By Damien Cave.
- . .
- General and miscellaneous
- , 2-minute web movie about casualties in Iraq from the
- , a traveling exhibition on the human cost of war
- , UN internal memo predicting 100,000 direct and 400,000 indirect casualties as a result of the invasion, December 10, 2002
- , online database and traveling exhibition of proposals and projects to memorialize the civilian casualties in Iraq